purelypaper :: Environmental Glossary

Environmental Glossary

ABCD Scheme

An initiative in the UK designed to classify the type and amount of recycled fibre in a paper product. The scheme grades four types of waste used in paper manufacture, as follows:

  A - Woodfree, approved own mill waste (waste that has not left the mill. i.e. mill broke).
  B - Woodfree unprinted waste (waste that has left the mill but not reached the consumer, typically from the printer or converter).
  C - Woodfree printed waste (post consumer waste, collected from homes, offices etc).
  D - Printed mechanical waste (post consumer waste, typically newspapers).

To be classified as recycled the grade has to contain no less than 50% of the total fibre from any combination of the above sources, with the percentages given for each. The ABCD method of classification is now rarely used.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

AOX

Adsorbable Organic Halogens. Collective term for the halogen compounds (chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine) bound to organic substances, for example in waste water from the mill. The compounds arise when bleaching with chlorine-containing chemicals although they can also occur naturally and are potentially detrimental to water quality. The lower the AOX level the better.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Biofuels

Fuels from renewable raw materials such as bark, black liquor, logging residues and effluent sludge.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Blue Angel

A German environmental label, which covers many products, including paper. It takes a 'cradle to grave' approach, considering manufacture and disposal as well as product use.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Chain of Custody

The means of tracking a product along the supply chain. For instance, being able to trace paper from the forest of origin, through pulp and paper mill, paper merchant and printer to the end user. Often a third party audits the Chain of Custody system, as with the FSC and PEFC schemes.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

CHP

Combined Heat and Power. A power-generating unit that provides heat and electricity on site rather than drawing energy from the grid. CHP units can have the benefit of proportionally lower emissions to air than power stations. Many paper mills use CHP.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

CSR

Corporate Social Responsibility. The continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large, including the environment.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Dioxins

Dioxins are organochlorines, unwanted and toxic by-products formed in papermaking when chlorine from bleaching combines with molecules in wood. They are also formed during the manufacture of PVC. Dioxins have been linked with hormone disruption and an increased risk of cancer. Both the paper and plastics industries have made major reductions to the release of dioxins in recent years.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

DIP

De-inked pulp. Pulp consisting of fibre from paper previously printed, which has had the ink removed.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

ECF

Elemental Chlorine Free. Paper pulp bleached without the use of elemental chlorine but instead using some chlorine dioxide, along with non-chlorine agents such as oxygen. Pulps using ECF methods contain up to 0.5kg of AOX per tonne of air-dried pulp.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

EMAS

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme. The European Union's regulated environmental management system. Similar to ISO14001 but also requires public reporting.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Eugropa Recycled Mark

Similar to the NAPM scheme but only requires 50% of fibre to be recycled. Uptake was limited and the scheme is now defunct.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Energy Source

Fuels such as coal, gas, oil, peat, bio-fuels (such as bark) or electricity generated by a combined heat and power unit or bought in from the grid. The source of energy can influence the air emissions - i.e. coal produces higher emissions than gas.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

EU Eco-label

European Union scheme to promote 'green' products, including paper. It uses a stringent life cycle analysis to identify where a product might harm the environment (manufacture, distribution, disposal etc.) taking into account various factors such as energy usage and emissions. Rarely used for paper products.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

FFCS

Finnish Forest Certification System. A scheme for auditing forestry operations in Finland, taking into account the effects on the environment. Now part of the PEFC scheme.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council. An international organisation promoting responsible forest management. FSC has developed principles for forest management which may be used for certifying the management of forest holdings, and a system of tracing, verifying and labelling timber and wood products which originate from FSC-certified forests.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

ISO14001

The standard published by the International Standards Organisation specifying the requirements of an environmental management system.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

LA21

Local Agenda 21. The global action plan agreed at the 1992 Earth Summit, which commits nations to sustainable development strategies. In the UK, local authorities have been tasked with co-ordinating LA21.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Life Cycle Assessment/Analysis (LCA)

A method of evaluating the environmental impact of a product 'from cradle to grave', including how it's made, how it's used and how it's disposed of.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Mill Broke

Offcuts and rejected material that has not left the paper mill. Broke is routinely re-pulped and the fibre used in the production of new paper. Mill broke is not normally considered to be true recycled fibre.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

NAPM Agriwaste Mark

The National Association of Paper Merchants' scheme for recognising paper that contains at least 75% non-wood waste material, such as hemp, straw, cotton, bagasse or linen.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

NAPM Recycled Mark

The National Association of Paper Merchants' scheme for designating a paper as recycled.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Nordic Swan

An environmental label encouraging production methods that create minimum environmental impact. Evaluation for paper is based upon strict limits for emissions and effluent from pulp and paper mills.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Packaging Waste Regulations

Regulations that require larger users of packaging to recover and recycle a defined amount. Robert Horne complies through a third party scheme. The regulations also dictate the 'essential requirements' for packaging placed on the market, such as low heavy metals content and recoverability by recycling or incineration.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Paper Profile

‘Product declarations’ produced by some paper manufacturers, which lists environmental information for their grades.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

PEFC

Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification. A scheme for auditing forestry operations, taking into account the effects on the environment.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Post-consumer Waste

Waste that has reached the end user, typically homes and offices.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Pre-consumer Waste

Waste that has left the mill but has not reached the end user. Typically trimmings and rejected material from printers, envelope converters etc.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Phthalates

These are a group of chemicals added to plastics (such as PVC) as a plasticiser in order to make flexible grades. Phthalates are alleged to be hormone disruptors although this has not been conclusively proven.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Sustainable Development

A way of living and working which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

TCF

Totally Chlorine Free. Paper pulp that is bleached without using chlorine in any form, thus giving an AOX level of zero. The alternative bleaching agents used might be liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide or sodium hydroxide.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Woodfree

Woodfree is a description of pulp and paper meaning that they contain little or no mechanically ground fibres. Implies that fibres are chemically treated, thereby eliminating lignin (the substance that binds wood fibres together in the tree) and making the product purer, whiter and stronger. Woodfree is an historical paper-making term shortened from 'groundwood-free' and does not denote a paper or pulp made from materials other than wood.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

WWF-UK Forest & Trade Network

A voluntary collection of British companies committed to the improvement of forest management standards. The group is administered by the World Wide Fund for Nature and our Merchant Partner is a member.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Copyright 2004 Purelypaper, online office paper specialists

Purelypaper Ltd provides all information in good faith but may not be held liable for loss or damage arising from action based on these Buying Guides.

Copyright Notice:

The materials and information on www.purelypaper.co.uk and of www.purelypaper.co.uk and their style and structure are protected by copyright and other intellectual property rights, and may not be used by you except as expressly provided in our User Agreement.

Purelypaper, online office paper specialists
Try product selector

Sage Pay Secured